Maolin Lu Laboratory



Associating HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein structures with states on the virus observed by smFRET. 


Lu, M. et al. Associating HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein structures with states on the virus observed by smFRET. Nature 568, 415–419 (2019).

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Real-Time Conformational Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Spikes on Virus Particles. 

Lu, M. et al. Real-Time Conformational Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Spikes on Virus Particles. Cell Host Microbe 28, 880-891.e8 (2020). 

Yang, Z., Han, Y., et al. SARS-CoV-2 variants increase kinetic stability of open spike conformations as an evolutionary strategy. mBio 13, e03227-21 (2022). 

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Biophysical Society 2022 annual meeting highlight: 



  1. Yuanyun Ao, Jonathan R. Grover, Levi Gifford, Yang Han, Guohua Zhong, Revansiddha Katte, Wenwei Li, Rajanya Bhattacharjee, Baoshan Zhang, Stephanie Sauve, Wenyi Qin, Dibya Ghimire, Anzarul Haque, James Arthos, Mahmoud Moradi, Walther Mothes, Edward A. Lemke, Peter D. Kwong, Gregory B. Melikyan, Maolin Lu. (2023). Bioorthogonal click labeling of an amber-free HIV-1 provirus for in-virus single molecule imaging. Cell Chemical Biology, accepted. 
  1. Leonhardt SA, Purdy MD, Grover JR, Yang Z, Poulos S, McIntire WE, Tatham EA, Erramilli SK, Nosol K, Lai KK, Ding S, Lu M, Uchil PD, Finzi A, Rein A, Kossiakoff AA, Mothes W, Yeager M. Antiviral HIV-1 SERINC restriction factors disrupt virus membrane asymmetry. Nat Commun. 2023 Jul 20;14(1):4368. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-39262-2. PubMed PMID: 37474505; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC10359404. 
  1. Ao Y, Grover JR, Han Y, Zhong G, Qin W, Ghimire D, Haque A, Bhattacharjee R, Zhang B, Arthos J, Lemke EA, Kwong PD, Lu M. An intact amber-free HIV-1 system for in-virus protein bioorthogonal click labeling that delineates envelope conformational dynamics. bioRxiv. 2023 Mar 1;. doi: 10.1101/2023.02.28.530526. PubMed PMID: 36909529; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC10002649. 
  1. Ghimire D, Han Y, Lu M. Structural Plasticity and Immune Evasion of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Variants. Viruses. 2022 Jun 9;14(6). doi: 10.3390/v14061255. Review. PubMed PMID: 35746726; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC9229035. 
  1. Cale EM, Driscoll JI, Lee M, Gorman J, Zhou T, Lu M, Geng H, Lai YT, Chuang GY, Doria-Rose NA, Mothes W, Kwong PD, Mascola JR. Antigenic analysis of the HIV-1 envelope trimer implies small differences between structural states 1 and 2. J Biol Chem. 2022 Apr;298(4):101819. doi: 10.1016/j.jbc.2022.101819. Epub 2022 Mar 10. PubMed PMID: 35283191; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC9006658. 
  1. Yang Z, Han Y, Ding S, Shi W, Zhou T, Finzi A, Kwong PD, Mothes W, Lu M. SARS-CoV-2 Variants Increase Kinetic Stability of Open Spike Conformations as an Evolutionary Strategy. mBio. 2021 Feb 22;13(1):e0322721. doi: 10.1128/mbio.03227-21. Epub 2022 Feb 15. PubMed PMID: 35164561; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC8844933. 
  1. Li W, Chen Y, Prévost J, Ullah I, Lu M, Gong SY, Tauzin A, Gasser R, Vézina D, Anand SP, Goyette G, Chaterjee D, Ding S, Tolbert WD, Grunst MW, Bo Y, Zhang S, Richard J, Zhou F, Huang RK, Esser L, Zeher A, Côté M, Kumar P, Sodroski J, Xia D, Uchil PD, Pazgier M, Finzi A, Mothes W. Structural basis and mode of action for two broadly neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 emerging variants of concern. Cell Rep. 2022 Jan 11;38(2):110210. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.110210. Epub 2021 Dec 15. PubMed PMID: 34971573; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC8673750. 
  1. Zhang S, Wang K, Wang WL, Nguyen HT, Chen S, Lu M, Go EP, Ding H, Steinbock RT, Desaire H, Kappes JC, Sodroski J, Mao Y. Asymmetric Structures and Conformational Plasticity of the Uncleaved Full-Length Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Trimer. J Virol. 2021 Nov 23;95(24):e0052921. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00529-21. Epub 2021 Sep 22. PubMed PMID: 34549974; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC8610584. 
  1. Ullah I, Prévost J, Ladinsky MS, Stone H, Lu M, Anand SP, Beaudoin-Bussières G, Symmes K, Benlarbi M, Ding S, Gasser R, Fink C, Chen Y, Tauzin A, Goyette G, Bourassa C, Medjahed H, Mack M, Chung K, Wilen CB, Dekaban GA, Dikeakos JD, Bruce EA, Kaufmann DE, Stamatatos L, McGuire AT, Richard J, Pazgier M, Bjorkman PJ, Mothes W, Finzi A, Kumar P, Uchil PD. Live imaging of SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice reveals that neutralizing antibodies require Fc function for optimal efficacy. Immunity. 2021 Sep 14;54(9):2143-2158.e15. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2021.08.015. Epub 2021 Aug 18. PubMed PMID: 34453881; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC8372518. 
  1. Tauzin A, Nayrac M, Benlarbi M, Gong SY, Gasser R, Beaudoin-Bussières G, Brassard N, Laumaea A, Vézina D, Prévost J, Anand SP, Bourassa C, Gendron-Lepage G, Medjahed H, Goyette G, Niessl J, Tastet O, Gokool L, Morrisseau C, Arlotto P, Stamatatos L, McGuire AT, Larochelle C, Uchil P, Lu M, Mothes W, De Serres G, Moreira S, Roger M, Richard J, Martel-Laferrière V, Duerr R, Tremblay C, Kaufmann DE, Finzi A. A single dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine BNT162b2 elicits Fc-mediated antibody effector functions and T cell responses. Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Jul 14;29(7):1137-1150.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.06.001. Epub 2021 Jun 4. PubMed PMID: 34133950; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC8175625. 
  1. Lu M. Single-Molecule FRET Imaging of Virus Spike-Host Interactions. Viruses. 2021 Feb 21;13(2). doi: 10.3390/v13020332. Review. PubMed PMID: 33669922; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7924862. 
  1. Lu M, Uchil PD, Li W, Zheng D, Terry DS, Gorman J, Shi W, Zhang B, Zhou T, Ding S, Gasser R, Prévost J, Beaudoin-Bussières G, Anand SP, Laumaea A, Grover JR, Liu L, Ho DD, Mascola JR, Finzi A, Kwong PD, Blanchard SC, Mothes W. Real-Time Conformational Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Spikes on Virus Particles. Cell Host Microbe. 2020 Dec 9;28(6):880-891.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2020.11.001. Epub 2020 Nov 13. PubMed PMID: 33242391; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7664471. 
  1. Lu M, Ma X, Reichard N, Terry DS, Arthos J, Smith AB 3rd, Sodroski JG, Blanchard SC, Mothes W. Correction for Lu et al., "Shedding-Resistant HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins Adopt Downstream Conformations That Remain Responsive to Conformation-Preferring Ligands". J Virol. 2020 Oct 27;94(22). doi: 10.1128/JVI.01661-20. Print 2020 Oct 27. PubMed PMID: 33109770; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7592207. 
  1. Lu M, Ma X, Reichard N, Terry DS, Arthos J, Smith AB 3rd, Sodroski JG, Blanchard SC, Mothes W. Shedding-Resistant HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins Adopt Downstream Conformations That Remain Responsive to Conformation-Preferring Ligands. J Virol. 2020 Aug 17;94(17). doi: 10.1128/JVI.00597-20. Print 2020 Aug 17. PubMed PMID: 32522853; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7431789. 
  1. Li Z, Li W, Lu M, Bess J Jr, Chao CW, Gorman J, Terry DS, Zhang B, Zhou T, Blanchard SC, Kwong PD, Lifson JD, Mothes W, Liu J. Subnanometer structures of HIV-1 envelope trimers on aldrithiol-2-inactivated virus particles. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2020 Aug;27(8):726-734. doi: 10.1038/s41594-020-0452-2. Epub 2020 Jun 29. PubMed PMID: 32601441; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC8138683. 
  1. Zou S, Zhang S, Gaffney A, Ding H, Lu M, Grover JR, Farrell M, Nguyen HT, Zhao C, Anang S, Zhao M, Mohammadi M, Blanchard SC, Abrams C, Madani N, Mothes W, Kappes JC, Smith AB 3rd, Sodroski J. Long-Acting BMS-378806 Analogues Stabilize the State-1 Conformation of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Glycoproteins. J Virol. 2020 May 4;94(10). doi: 10.1128/JVI.00148-20. Print 2020 May 4. PubMed PMID: 32161177; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7199401. 
  1. Henderson R, Lu M, Zhou Y, Mu Z, Parks R, Han Q, Hsu AL, Carter E, Blanchard SC, Edwards RJ, Wiehe K, Saunders KO, Borgnia MJ, Bartesaghi A, Mothes W, Haynes BF, Acharya P, Munir Alam S. Disruption of the HIV-1 Envelope allosteric network blocks CD4-induced rearrangements. Nat Commun. 2020 Jan 24;11(1):520. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-14196-w. PubMed PMID: 31980614; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6981184. 
  1. Lu M, Ma X, Mothes W. Illuminating the virus life cycle with single-molecule FRET imaging. Adv Virus Res. 2019;105:239-273. doi: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2019.07.004. Epub 2019 Aug 20. PubMed PMID: 31522706; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7246055. 
  1. Lu M, Ma X, Castillo-Menendez LR, Gorman J, Alsahafi N, Ermel U, Terry DS, Chambers M, Peng D, Zhang B, Zhou T, Reichard N, Wang K, Grover JR, Carman BP, Gardner MR, Nikić-Spiegel I, Sugawara A, Arthos J, Lemke EA, Smith AB 3rd, Farzan M, Abrams C, Munro JB, McDermott AB, Finzi A, Kwong PD, Blanchard SC, Sodroski JG, Mothes W. Associating HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein structures with states on the virus observed by smFRET. Nature. 2019 Apr;568(7752):415-419. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1101-y. Epub 2019 Apr 10. PubMed PMID: 30971821; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6655592. 
  1. Ma X, Lu M, Gorman J, Terry DS, Hong X, Zhou Z, Zhao H, Altman RB, Arthos J, Blanchard SC, Kwong PD, Munro JB, Mothes W. HIV-1 Env trimer opens through an asymmetric intermediate in which individual protomers adopt distinct conformations. Elife. 2018 Mar 21;7. doi: 10.7554/eLife.34271. PubMed PMID: 29561264; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5896952. 
  1. Lu M, Lu HP. Revealing Multiple Pathways in T4 Lysozyme Substep Conformational Motions by Single-Molecule Enzymology and Modeling. J Phys Chem B. 2017 May 18;121(19):5017-5024. doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b03039. Epub 2017 May 8. PubMed PMID: 28425708. 
  1. Lu M, Lu HP. Probing protein multidimensional conformational fluctuations by single-molecule multiparameter photon stamping spectroscopy. J Phys Chem B. 2014 Oct 16;118(41):11943-55. doi: 10.1021/jp5081498. Epub 2014 Oct 3. PubMed PMID: 25222115; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4199541. 
  1. Han Y, Ma TM, Lu ML, Ren L, Ma XD, Bai ZH. Role of moxibustion in inflammatory responses during treatment of rat ulcerative colitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Aug 28;20(32):11297-304. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i32.11297. PubMed PMID: 25170214; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4145768. 
  1. He Y, Lu M, Lu HP. Single-molecule photon stamping FRET spectroscopy study of enzymatic conformational dynamics. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Jan 21;15(3):770-5. doi: 10.1039/c2cp42944f. PubMed PMID: 23085845; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3657739. 
  1. He Y, Lu M, Cao J, Lu HP. Manipulating protein conformations by single-molecule AFM-FRET nanoscopy. ACS Nano. 2012 Feb 28;6(2):1221-9. doi: 10.1021/nn2038669. Epub 2012 Feb 1. PubMed PMID: 22276737; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3662055. 
  1. Pan X, Lu M, Wu D, Gai L. Synthesis and characterization of double-layer quantum-dots-tagged microspheres. IEEE Trans Nanobioscience. 2009 Mar;8(1):13-9. doi: 10.1109/TNB.2009.2016549. Epub 2009 Mar 16. PubMed PMID: 19304502. 
  1. Lu M, Wu D, Guo N. Novel functionalized ternary copolymer fluorescent nanoparticles: synthesis, fluorescent characteristics and protein immobilization. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2009 Feb;20(2):563-72. doi: 10.1007/s10856-008-3596-x. Epub 2008 Oct 7. PubMed PMID: 18839282. 



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